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When the fuse blows or breaker trips
Your house wiring is protected either by fuses or circuit breakers depending on the type you have.

Why do fuses/circuit breakers fail?

A fuse is a very important part of your wiring. The fuse will blow or the breaker trip when either:

•  The circuit is overloaded so that it is trying to draw too much current.

•  There is a fault on the circuit probably creating a short (short circuit) caused possibly by the live touching neutral or earth wires, or possibly a fault on an appliance.

When a fuse blows are a breaker trips It may be from a temporary problem so you can try changing the fuse (or fuse wire) or reset the breaker. If it then blows/trips again you still have a fault. Unless there is an obvious solution you should call a qualified electrician. See also my section on fault finding.

E.g. Sometimes when a light bulb fails it also trips the breaker and simply resetting the breaker will solve the problem.

Replacing the fuse wire in a rewirable fuse    
Feed the new fuse wire through the white ceramic holder. Unscrew the two retaining screws and secure the new wire at both ends.
Resetting a circuit breaker

Simply flip the breaker back to the on position.
If it won't re-set you still have a fault.